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Ozonation (also referred to as ozonisation) is a chemical water treatment technique based on the infusion of ozone into water. Ozone is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms (O3), which is one of the most powerful oxidants. Ozonation is a type of advanced oxidation process, involving the production of very reactive oxygen species able to attack a wide range of organic compounds and all microorganisms. The treatment of water with ozone has a wide range of applications, as it is efficient for disinfection as well as for the degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Ozone is produced with the use of energy by subjecting oxygen (O2) to high electric voltage or to UV radiation. The required amounts of ozone can be produced at the point of use but the production requires a lot of energy and is therefore costly.


  • Rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses and protozoa over a wide pH range
  • Stronger germicidal properties than chlorination
  • No chemicals are added to water
  • Also efficient for organics degradation and inorganics removal
  • Removes colour, taste and odour


  • Relatively high equipment costs
  • Requires large amounts of energy
  • Qualified professionals required for design and system maintenance
  • Formation of potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the case of brome existence in water
  • No residual effect is present in the distribution system
  • Potential fire hazard and toxicity associated with ozone generation

The ozonation process recently gained popularity as a treatment alternative in the united States after the regulatory agencies placed restrictions on the disinfection byproducts, especially the acceptable levels of trihalomethane

Ozone water treatment systems zhave four basic components:

  • a gas feed system
  • an Ozone generator
  • an Ozone contactor/ Ozone contact tank
  • an off-gas destruction system

After the type of ozone generation unit is selected, the design engineer must establish the following key design issues:

  • Size of the ozone generator
  • Number of generators
  • Cost of energy
  • Availability and cost of oxygen
  • Type of feed gas treatment system
  • Reliability of each component
  • Operation and maintenance costs
  • Ozone Contactor design
  • Destruction of the off-gas
  • Use of catalyst such as UV and hydrogen peroxide