Electro dialysis (ED) processes transfer ions of dissolved salts across membranes, leaving purified water behind. Ion movement is induced by direct current electrical fields.
A negative electrode (cathode) attracts cations, and a positive electrode (anode) attracts anions. Systems are compartmentalized in stacks by alternating cation and anion transfer membranes. Alternating compartments carry concentrated brine and filtered permeate. Typically, 40-60% of dissolved ions are removed or rejected. Further improvement in water quality is obtained by staging (operation of stacks in series). ED processes do not remove particulate contaminants or weakly ionized contaminants, such as silica. Electro dialysis reversal (EDR) processes operate on the same principles as ED; however, EDR operation reverses system polarity (typically 3-4 times per hour). This reversal stops the build-up of concentrated solutions on the membrane and thereby reduces the accumulation of inorganic and organic deposition on the membrane surface. EDR systems are similar to ED systems, designed with adequate chamber area to collect both product water and brine. EDR produces water of the same quality as ED.