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Conventional media filtration systems are available as either gravity or pressurized type with media selection to suit the treatment strategy.
When Conventional pre-treatment is not sufficient, the use of a Micro Filtration (MF) / Ultra Filtration (UF) systems is a solution for the removal of suspended solids, viruses and bacteria from a feed water source.MF/UF provides excellent pre-treatment for Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) and high turbidity brackish water sources.
DANATIVARA has a wide range of experience with pre-treatment filtration systems and membranes. DANATIVARA will work with you to both optimize your current pre-treatment system, and provide consultation on improving the system. One type of current open sand filter which retains suspended particulate matter in raw water, thanks to a thick layer of sand. The homogeneity of the sand increases the filter run time, while the thickness enables filtration at high speeds and the high water head (1.20m) prevents degasification.
DANATIVARA has also experience supporting a variety of membrane and filter operations such as: Brim, Carbon Filters, Greensand, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration, Multi-media Filtration, and Sand Filters.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]
Suspended matter in raw water supplies is removed by various methods to provide a water suitable for domestic purposes and most industrial requirements.
The suspended matter can consist of large solids, settable by gravity alone without any external aids, and nonsettleable material, often colloidal in nature. Removal is generally accomplished by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The combination of these three processes is referred to as conventional clarification.
Coagulation is the process of destabilization by charge neutralization. Once neutralized, particles no longer repel each other and can be brought together. Coagulation is necessary for the removal of the colloidal-sized suspended matter.[/vc_column_text][vc_single_image image="1565" img_size="full" css_animation=""][vc_column_text css_animation=""]
Flocculation is the process of bringing together the destabilized, or "coagulated," particles to form a larger agglomeration, or "floc." Sedimentation refers to the physical removal from suspension, or settling, that occurs once the particles have been coagulated and flocculated. Sedimentation or subsidence alone, without prior coagulation, results in the removal of only relatively coarse suspended solids. Steps of Clarification Finely divided particles suspended in surface water repel each other because most of the surfaces are negatively charged.[/vc_column_text][vc_single_image image="1566" img_size="full" css_animation=""][vc_column_text css_animation=""]
The following steps in clarification are necessary for particle agglomeration:
- Coagulation can be accomplished through the addition of inorganic salts of aluminum or iron. These inorganic salts neutralize the charge on the particles causing raw water turbidity, and also hydrolyze to form insoluble precipitates, which entrap particles. Coagulation can also be effected by the addition of water-soluble organic polymers with numerous ionized sites for particle charge neutralization.
- Flocculation, the agglomeration of destabilized particles into large particles, can be enhanced by the addition of high-molecular-weight, water-soluble organic polymers. These polymers increase floc size by charged site binding and by molecular bridging.
- Therefore, coagulation involves neutralizing charged particles to destabilize suspended solids. In most clarification processes, a flocculation step then follows. Flocculation starts when neutralized or entrapped particles begin to collide and fuse to form larger particles. This process can occur naturally or can be enhanced by the addition of polymeric flocculant aids.
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