The second step in a conventional water treatment system is filtration, which removes particulate matter from water by forcing the water to pass through porous media. The filtration system consists of filters with varying sizes of pores, and is often made up of sand, gravel and charcoal. The diagram below shows a homemade filter that is made up of particles of various sizes. The diameter of a grain of fine sand is approximately 0.1 millimetre, so only particles with diameters less than 0.1 millimetre would pass through the fine sand layer.

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